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However, although Engels wrote in the s, his book was not translated into English until the late s, and his expression did not enter everyday language until then. Credit for popularising the term may be given to Arnold Toynbeewhose lectures gave a detailed account of the term.
This is still a subject of debate among some historians. Important technological developments The commencement of the Industrial Revolution is closely linked to a small number of innovations,  beginning in the second half of the 18th century.
By the s the following gains had been made in important technologies: Textiles — mechanised cotton spinning powered by steam or water increased the output of a worker by a factor of around The power loom increased the output of a worker by a factor of over The adaptation of stationary steam engines to rotary motion made them suitable for industrial uses.
Iron making — the substitution of coke for charcoal greatly lowered the fuel cost of pig iron and wrought iron production. The steam engine began being used to pump water to power blast air in the mid s, enabling a large increase in iron production by overcoming the limitation of water power.
It was later improved by making it double acting, which allowed higher blast furnace temperatures. The puddling process produced a structural grade iron at a lower cost than the finery forge.
Hot blast greatly increased fuel efficiency in iron production in the following decades. Invention of machine tools — The first machine tools were invented. These included the screw cutting lathecylinder boring machine and the milling machine. Machine tools made the economical manufacture of precision metal parts possible, although it took several decades to develop effective techniques.
Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution British textile industry statistics In Britain imported 2. In raw cotton consumption was 22 million pounds, most of which was cleaned, carded and spun on machines. Value added by the British woollen industry was Cotton factories in Britain numbered approximately in In approximately one-third of cotton cloth manufactured in Britain was exported, rising to two-thirds by In cotton spun amounted to 5.
In less than 0. In there were 50, spindles in Britain, rising to 7 million over the next 30 years. In tropical and subtropical regions where it was grown, most was grown by small farmers alongside their food crops and was spun and woven in households, largely for domestic consumption.
In the 15th century China began to require households to pay part of their taxes in cotton cloth. By the 17th century almost all Chinese wore cotton clothing. Almost everywhere cotton cloth could be used as a medium of exchange.
In India a significant amount of cotton textiles were manufactured for distant markets, often produced by professional weavers. Some merchants also owned small weaving workshops.Nineteenth Century Industrialization in the United States During the second half of the nineteenth century, the United States experienced an urban revolution unparalleled in world history up to that point in time.
As factories, mines, and mills sprouted out across the map, cities grew up around them. New York State US History Regents Review Sheet.
Use this page's links for an online review packet and study guide. REVIEW HISTORY ALL YEAR LONG WITH MR. This extensive test prep manual covers the AP United States History curriculum, and will help prepare students for the most current exam. Two full-length practice tests with all questions answered and explained.
19th Century Industrialization Essay Words | 6 Pages. 19th Century Industrialization Nineteenth Century Industrialization During the second half of the nineteenth century, the United States experienced an urban revolution unparalleled in world history up to that point in time.
1. Early Discovery & Settlement 2. America & the British Empire 3. Late 17c and 18c American Society. United States History I Advanced Placement is a full-year course designed to provide students with content, practical knowledge of U.S. history, practice in critical thinking activities, and experience in effective writing techniques .