Many current FAQs deal with questions about biological and geological origins here on Earth. This page will take a broader view, focusing on the the universe itself. Before beginning the examination of the evidence surrounding current cosmology, it is important to understand what Big Bang Theory BBT is and is not.
History of entropy The French mathematician Lazare Carnot proposed in his paper Fundamental Principles of Equilibrium and Movement that in any machine the accelerations and shocks of the moving parts represent losses of moment of activity.
In other words, in any natural process there exists an inherent tendency towards the dissipation of useful energy. Building on this work, in Lazare's son Sadi Carnot published Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire which posited that in all heat-engines, whenever " caloric " what is now known as heat falls through a temperature difference, work or motive power can be produced from the actions of its fall from a hot to cold body.
He made the analogy with that of how water falls in a water wheel. This was an early insight into the second law of thermodynamics.
The first law of thermodynamicsdeduced from the heat-friction experiments of James Joule inexpresses the concept of energy, and its conservation in all processes; the first law, however, is unable to quantify the effects of friction and dissipation.
In the s and s, German physicist Rudolf Clausius objected to the supposition that no change occurs in the working body, and gave this "change" a mathematical interpretation by questioning the nature of the inherent loss of usable heat when work is done, e.
In Boltzmann visualized a probabilistic way to measure the entropy of an ensemble of ideal gas particles, in which he defined entropy to be proportional to the natural logarithm of the number of microstates such a gas could occupy.
Henceforth, the essential problem in statistical thermodynamicsi. Definitions and descriptions[ edit ] Any method involving the notion of entropy, the very existence of which depends on the second law of thermodynamics, will doubtless seem to many far-fetched, and may repel beginners as obscure and difficult of comprehension.
Historically, the classical thermodynamics definition developed first. In the classical thermodynamics viewpoint, the system is composed of very large numbers of constituents atoms, molecules and the state of the system is described by the average thermodynamic properties of those constituents; the details of the system's constituents are not directly considered, but their behavior is described by macroscopically averaged properties, e.
The early classical definition of the properties of the system assumed equilibrium. The classical thermodynamic definition of entropy has more recently been extended into the area of non-equilibrium thermodynamics.
Later, the thermodynamic properties, including entropy, were given an alternative definition in terms of the statistics of the motions of the microscopic constituents of a system — modeled at first classically, e.
|Knowledge Base||Or it may go partly toward doing external work and partly toward creating entropy. The important point is that the extent of reaction for a chemical reaction may be coupled to the displacement of some external mechanical or electrical quantity in such a way that one can advance only if the other one also does.|
|Chemical thermodynamics - Wikipedia||It is a consequence of the evolutionary success of an exceptionally rapacious primate. Throughout all of history and prehistory, human advance has coincided with ecological devastation.|
Newtonian particles constituting a gas, and later quantum-mechanically photons, phononsspins, etc. The statistical mechanics description of the behavior of a system is necessary as the definition of the properties of a system using classical thermodynamics become an increasingly unreliable method of predicting the final state of a system that is subject to some process.
Function of state[ edit ] There are many thermodynamic properties that are functions of state. This means that at a particular thermodynamic state which should not be confused with the microscopic state of a systemthese properties have a certain value.
Often, if two properties of the system are determined, then the state is determined and the other properties' values can also be determined. For instance, a quantity of gas at a particular temperature and pressure has its state fixed by those values and thus has a specific volume that is determined by those values.
As another instance, a system composed of a pure substance of a single phase at a particular uniform temperature and pressure is determined and is thus a particular state and is at not only a particular volume but also at a particular entropy.
In the Carnot cycle, the working fluid returns to the same state it had at the start of the cycle, hence the line integral of any state function, such as entropy, over this reversible cycle is zero.
Reversible process[ edit ] Entropy is conserved for a reversible process. A reversible process is one that does not deviate from thermodynamic equilibrium, while producing the maximum work. Any process which happens quickly enough to deviate from thermal equilibrium cannot be reversible.
In these cases energy is lost to heat, total entropy increases, and the potential for maximum work to be done in the transition is also lost.EES is particularly useful in thermodynamics problems since most property data needed for solving problems in these areas are provided by the program.
For example, the steam tables are implemented such that any thermodynamic property can be obtained from a built-in function call in terms of any other properties. problems in this text are premised on either the SI unit realm or the US unit system. When the problems or numerical analysis are based on only one of the of entropy in practical thermodynamics.
On the other hand, our continued exploration of enthalpy, in this segment, and the ones heretofore, is indicative. Schedule of Lectures for \Foundational Problems of Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics" Dr.
Erik Curiel \Foundations of Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics" FINAL PAPER DUE: \On the Paradox of Reversible Processes in Thermodynamics" Suggested Reading rutadeltambor.com and U nk (), \The Origins of Time-Asymmetry in Thermodynamics.
There are two related definitions of entropy: the thermodynamic definition and the statistical mechanics definition. Historically, the classical thermodynamics definition developed first.
In the classical thermodynamics viewpoint, the system is composed of very large numbers of constituents (atoms, molecules) and the state of the system is described by the average thermodynamic properties of.
In physics, maximum entropy thermodynamics (colloquially, MaxEnt thermodynamics) views equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical mechanics as inference processes. More specifically, MaxEnt applies inference techniques rooted in Shannon information theory, Bayesian probability, and the principle of maximum entropy.
EES is particularly useful in thermodynamics problems since most property data needed for solving problems in these areas are provided by the program. For example, the steam tables are implemented such that any thermodynamic property can be obtained .